Letters

Antifederalist No. 68 — On the Mode of Electing the President

From a speech by William Grayson given to the Virginia ratifying convention on June 18, 1788. Mr. [William] GRAYSON. Mr. Chairman, one great objection with me is this: If we advert to….. [the] democratical, aristocratical, or executive branch, we shall find their powers are perpetually varying and fluctuating throughout the whole. Perhaps the democratic branch …

Historical Tidbits

When reenacting or acting as a historical interpreter, its good to have a few historical dates and stories to share. This series will publish a few. December 8, 1776           Washington crosses Delaware (retreat) On 8 December 1776, after a long retreat through New Jersey under pressure from the British Army, American General George Washington …

FEDERALIST No. 68: The Mode of Electing the President

We are on the eve of a very important election.  Much has been said about the Constitution and what is Constitutional so let’s take a few weeks and look at the foundational letters written by Madison, Hamilton, and Jay arguing for the creation of the US Constitution.  The comment tab is open.  Please share your …

Antifederalist No. 67 — Various Fears Concerning the Executive Department

From the “Cato” letters of George Clinton, taken from The New-York Journal of November 8, 1787. I shall begin with observations on the executive branch of this new system; and though it is not the first in order, as arranged therein, yet being the chief, is perhaps entitled by the rules of rank to the …

Historical Tidbits

When reenacting or acting as a historical interpreter, its good to have a few historical dates and stories to share. This series will publish a few. December 7, 1787 – Delaware became the first state to ratify the US Constitution.  The Constitution was not ratified by all states until May 29, 1790, when Rhode Island …

Historical Tidbits

When reenacting or acting as a historical interpreter, its good to have a few historical dates and stories to share. This series will publish a few. December 7, 1787 – George Washington dies at his estate at Mount Vernon. On Thursday, December 12, 1799, George Washington was out on horseback supervising farming activities from late …

Antifederalist No. 66 — On The Power of Impeachment

From North Carolina Mr. JOSEPH TAYLOR objected to the provision made for impeaching. He urged that there could be no security from it, as the persons accused were triable by the Senate, who were a part of the legislature themselves; that, while men were fallible, the senators were liable to errors, especially in a case …

FEDERALIST No. 66: Objections to the Power of the Senate To Set as a Court for Impeachments Further Considered.

We are on the eve of a very important election.  Much has been said about the Constitution and what is Constitutional so let’s take a few weeks and look at the foundational letters written by Madison, Hamilton, and Jay arguing for the creation of the US Constitution.  The comment tab is open.  Please share your …

Did Jews Participate in the American Revolution? Well here are a few stories. (Haym Salomon)

I am going to conclude this short series with a note on someone I consider to be one of the nation’s unrecognized Founding Fathers for without the sacrifices of Mr. Salomon, the Revolutionary War would have likely ended in New Jersey in 1776 as the Continental Congress ran out of funds to support the army. …

Did Jews Participate in the American Revolution? Well here are a few stories. (Levy Solomons)

Since the quartermaster department of the Revolutionary armed forces was primitive and inadequate, the government turned to civilian purveyors for badly needed supplies. Many, if not most, Jewish merchants of that day were purveyors on a large or small scale, offering the government clothing, gunpowder, and lead. Harassed for lack of funds, the authorities took …

Antifederalist No. 65 — On the Organization and Powers of the Senate. (Part 4)

(By Gilbert Livingston and John Lansing delivered on June 24, 1788 to the New York ratifying convention.) Mr. Gilbert LIVINGSTON rose, and addressed the chair. He, in the first place, considered the importance of the Senate as a branch of the legislature, in three points of view: — First, they would possess legislative powers coextensive …

Did Jews Participate in the American Revolution? Well here are a few stories. (the "Jew Company")

In South Carolina of at least thirty-four Jewish soldiers served in what would become known as the “Jew Company” under Captain Richard Lushington.  The Jews who served in Lusington’s company did not constitute a majority, but since most of them had been conscripted as a group from the King Street shopkeepers of Savanah, they all …

Antifederalist No. 64 — On the Organization and Powers of the Senate. (Part 3)

Taken from the New York Journal, Nov. 22, 1787 by “Cincinnatus” It appears to have been written in answer to James Wilson’s Antifederalist # 12). I come now, sir, to the most exceptionable part of the Constitution — the Senate. In this, as in every other part, you [James Wilson of Pennsylvania] are in the …

How to Survey Land with 18th Century Tools – Measuring Lines

Land surveys consist of six basic tasks: Determinizing your position on Earth using celestial navigation methods Measuring distances with a Gunter’s Chain. Measuring changes in elevation with a Range Pole Measurement of directions and angles using a Compass. Drawing the map on a Plane Table, and Computing areas with basic plane geometry In this series …

Did Jews Participate in the American Revolution? Well here are a few stories. (Moses Franks)

In 1776, as Washington was preparing in Boston to move against New York, the general requested Congress to send him $250,000 in hard coin to pay the militia whose term of service had expired. Washington’s problem was not to raise the money, but to transport it to Boston past hostile Tories. Shipping the specie by …

There’s been a Murder at Fort Mifflin — THE CURIOUS CASE OF LIEUTENANT BODDY

Saturday, February 5, 2022 Lieutenant Boddy, a generally disrespectable and disrespected, bad bargain of an officer was found shot dead on the Parade Ground, presumably on his way back after carousing in town. While no one, except perhaps his tavern keeper, will mourn the loss of Lt. Boddy we cannot allow vigilante justice within our …

Antifederalist No. 63 — On the Organization and Powers of the Senate. (Part 2)

. . . . The senate is an assembly of 26 members, two from each state; though the senators are apportioned on the federal plan, they will vote individually. They represent the states, as bodies politic, sovereign to certain purposes. The states being sovereign and independent, are all considered equal, each with the other in …

Cast Iron Chef at Fort Mifflin

Sorry for the repost but I added the ticketing link below… See https://fortmifflin.ticketleap.com/cis-brew/ for details and to buy your tickets. Want an opportunity to quench your thirst and satisfy your hunger for an immersive history experience this winter. Come to Fort Mifflin for a taste of life in early 19th century Philadelphia! Join the Regimental …

Did Jews Participate in the American Revolution? Well here are a few stories. (Jewish Pirates)

When the Spanish expelled the Jews in 1482, many came to the “New World” is search of freedom and safety.  Not surprising, many turned to piracy as both a means of income and as retribution for their mistreatment in Spain. Similarly, many Jews, already heavily involved in shipping and trade, began to arm merchant ships …

Antifederalist No. 62 — On the Organization and Powers of the Senate. (Part 1)

Taken from the 16th essay of “Brutus” from The New York Journal of April 10, 1788. The following things may be observed with respect to the constitution of the Senate. 1st. They are to be elected by the legislatures of the States and not by the people, and each State is to be represented by …

Did Jews Participate in the American Revolution? Well here are a few stories (Joseph Smith)

Joseph Smith enlisted in the Third Maryland Regiment at the age of twenty-three.  Apparently illiterate, Smith signed his enlistment and the company payroll with his mark.   Smith saw service in Pennsylvania, New Jerseys, and the South. He was wounded at Camden in 1780 and captured. He remained a prisoner until the end of the war …

Historical Tidbits

When reenacting or acting as a historical interpreter, its good to have a few historical dates and stories to share. This series will publish a few. December 1, 1779            2nd Encampment at Morristown While much in made of the harsh conditions at Valley Forge, the winter of 1779 was the harshest in the war.  “A …

Antifederalist No. 61 — Questions and Comments on the Constitutional Provisions Regarding the Election of Congressmen

The “Federal Farmer” comments on the election of Congressmen. . . . . It is well observed by Montesquieu, that in republican governments the forms of elections are fundamental; and that it is an essential part of the social compact, to ascertain by whom, to whom, when, and in what manner, suffrages are to be …

FEDERALIST No. 61: Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members

We are on the eve of a very important election.  Much has been said about the Constitution and what is Constitutional so let’s take a few weeks and look at the foundational letters written by Madison, Hamilton, and Jay arguing for the creation of the US Constitution.  The comment tab is open.  Please share your …

Did Jews Participate in the American Revolution? Well here are a few stories. (Francis Salvador)

Francis Salvador owned a large plantation South Carolina’s Ninety-Six District. Salvador soon emerged as a Whig leader. In a time when only men who had accepted Christian oaths were allowed to serve in military and political office, Salvador was the first unconverted Jew to serve in an American legislature.  He was elected to the provincial …

Historical Tidbits

When reenacting or acting as a historical interpreter, its good to have a few historical dates and stories to share. This series will publish a few. December 31, 1781          1st Bank of North America established Chartered May 26, 1781, by the Continental Congress under the Articles of Confederation, this enterprise was the first national and truly …

Antifederalist No. 60 — Will the Constitution Promote the Interests of Favorite Classes?

John F. Mercer of Maryland was the author of this essay, taken from his testimony to members of the ratifying conventions of New York and Virginia, 1788, (From the Etting Collection of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania.) We have not that permanent and fixed distinction of ranks or orders of men among us, which unalterably …

FEDERALIST No. 60: Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members

We are on the eve of a very important election.  Much has been said about the Constitution and what is Constitutional so let’s take a few weeks and look at the foundational letters written by Madison, Hamilton, and Jay arguing for the creation of the US Constitution.  The comment tab is open.  Please share your …

Did Jews Participate in the American Revolution? Well here are a few stories. (Isaac Franks)

Isaac Franks, became a lieutenant colonel in the Pennsylvania militia, but that was after the war. In 1776, at the age of seventeen, he enlisted in a regiment of volunteers, arming and equipping himself at his own expense. After the Battle of Long Island, when his company retreated to New York City, he was captured …

Antifederalist No. 59 — The Danger of Congressional Control of Elections

Alexander Hamilton, in Federalist #59, addresses this same topic from an opposing viewpoint. This essay was written anonymously by “Vox Populi,” and appeared in The Massachusetts Gazette on October 30, 1787. . . I beg leave to Jay before the candid public the first clause in the fourth section of the first article of the …

FEDERALIST No. 59: Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members

We are on the eve of a very important election.  Much has been said about the Constitution and what is Constitutional so let’s take a few weeks and look at the foundational letters written by Madison, Hamilton, and Jay arguing for the creation of the US Constitution.  The comment tab is open.  Please share your …

Did Jews Participate in the American Revolution? Well here are a few stories. (Mordecai Sheftall)

In Georgia it was a Jew who took the lead in establishing the first “American” government in that colony. Mordecai Sheftall was a second-generation Jewish resident of Savannah and in the late summer of 1774, he became the head of the Parochial Committee of Christ Church Parish.  He worked hard to fully implement the Non-Importation …

Antifederalist No. 58 — Will the House of Representatives Be Genuinely Representative? (Part 4)

It is said that our people have a high sense of freedom, possess power, property, and the strong arm; meaning, I presume, that the body of the people can take care of themselves, and awe their rulers; and, therefore, particular provision in the constitution for their security may not be essential. When I come to …

Von Stueben Altbier

During the early American Revolutionary War, Continental Army lacked strong central command and was made up of state-run militias operating independently of each other. Each militia operated by its own rules and regulations and there was very little standardization or guidance for the duties and responsibilities of soldiers and officers.  In 1777, Friedrich von Steuben …

FEDERALIST No. 58: Objection That The Number of Members Will Not Be Augmented as the Progress of Population Demands.Federalist #1

We are on the eve of a very important election.  Much has been said about the Constitution and what is Constitutional so let’s take a few weeks and look at the foundational letters written by Madison, Hamilton, and Jay arguing for the creation of the US Constitution.  The comment tab is open.  Please share your …

Did Jews Participate in the American Revolution? Well here are a few stories. (David Salisbury Franks and Solomon Bush)

Yesterday we discussed Mordecai Sheftall’s career during the Revolution.  There were two other Jewish soldiers that became staff officers in the Continental Army – David Salisbury Franks and Solomon Bush. When General Richard Montgomery took Montreal from the English, David Salisbury Franks (then a Canadian civilian) lent the American Army money and sold them supplies, …

Antifederalist No. 57 — Will the House of Representatives Be Genuinely Representative? (Part 3)

. . . . But “the people must elect good men.” Examine the system — is it practicable for them to elect fit and proper representatives where the number is so small? “But the people may choose whom they please.” This is an observation, I believe, made without due attention to facts and the state …

FEDERALIST No. 57: The Alleged Tendency of the New Plan to Elevate the Few at the Expense of the Many Considered in Connection with Representation.

We are on the eve of a very important election.  Much has been said about the Constitution and what is Constitutional so let’s take a few weeks and look at the foundational letters written by Madison, Hamilton, and Jay arguing for the creation of the US Constitution.  The comment tab is open.  Please share your …

Antifederalist No. 56 — Will the House of Representatives Be Genuinely Representative? (Part 2)

. . . . Why in England have the revolutions always ended in stipulations in favor of general liberty, equal laws, and the common rights of the people, and in most other countries in favor only of a few influential men? The reasons, in my mind, are obvious. In England the people have been substantially …

FEDERALIST No. 56: The Total Number of the House of Representatives

We are on the eve of a very important election.  Much has been said about the Constitution and what is Constitutional so let’s take a few weeks and look at the foundational letters written by Madison, Hamilton, and Jay arguing for the creation of the US Constitution.  The comment tab is open.  Please share your …

Antifederalist No. 55 — Will the House of Representatives Be Genuinely Representative? (Part 1)

Following are four essays by “The Federal Farmer.” …. It being impracticable for the people to assemble to make laws, they must elect legislators, and assign men to the different departments of the government. In the representative branch we must expect chiefly to collect the confidence of the people, and in it to find almost …

Thanksgiving – 1770’s Style

In 1789, President George Washington issued a proclamation designating November 26 of that year as a national day of thanksgiving to recognize the role of providence in creating the new United States and the new federal Constitution.  Thanksgiving as a celebration of surviving the first year of the Plymouth Colony had been celebrated in Massachusetts …

FEDERALIST No. 55: The Total Number of the House of Representatives

We are on the eve of a very important election.  Much has been said about the Constitution and what is Constitutional so let’s take a few weeks and look at the foundational letters written by Madison, Hamilton, and Jay arguing for the creation of the US Constitution.  The comment tab is open.  Please share your …

THANKSGIVING DAY 1789

BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA – A PROCLAMATION Whereas it is the duty of all Nations to acknowledge the providence of almighty God, to obey his will, to be grateful for his benefits, and humbly to implore his protection and favor – and Whereas both Houses of Congress have by their …

Antifederalist No. 54 –Apportionment And Slavery: Northern And Southern Views

This four part essay shows both northern and southern dissatisfaction with “the Great Compromise.” The first is taken from the third essay of “Brutus.” The second: from the speeches of Rawlins Lowndes to the South Carolina ratifying convention on January 16, 17, and 18, 1788. The third: from the sixth essay by “Cato.” The fourth: …

FEDERALIST No. 54: The Apportionment of Members Among the States

We are on the eve of a very important election.  Much has been said about the Constitution and what is Constitutional so let’s take a few weeks and look at the foundational letters written by Madison, Hamilton, and Jay arguing for the creation of the US Constitution.  The comment tab is open.  Please share your …

Antifederalist No. 53 — A Plea for the Right of Recall

“Amicus” appeared in the Columbian Herald, August 28, 1788. Some time before a Convention of the United States was held, I mentioned in a paragraph which was published in one of the Charlestown papers, that it would be acting wisely in the formation of a constitution for a free government, to enact, that the electors …

Despite Today’s Politics, the Turkey was Never Considered as Our National Symbol

There is a myth that the turkey almost came to represent the United States. The story goes that after the Declaration of Independence was signed, Congress asked Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, and John Adams to design a seal for our new nation. Since many of the Germanic nations, incorporate eagles into their pageantry, the eagle …

Historical Tidbits

When reenacting or acting as a historical interpreter, its good to have a few historical dates and stories to share. This series will publish a few. November 22, 1718 – William Teach (AKA Blackbeard) was captured and executed by the Royal Navy off the coast of North Carolina.  His mythical buried treasure has not been …

Antifederalist No. 52 — On the Guarantee of Congressional Biennial Elections

The following essay was signed by Consider Arms, Malichi Maynard, and Samuel Field. It was taken from The Hampshire Gazette of April 9, 1788. We the subscribers being of the number, who did not assent to the ratification of the federal constitution, under consideration in the late state convention, held at Boston, to which we …

Turkey? Why Turkey?

For many a Thanksgiving meal is centered on turkey.  Turkeys are indigenous only to parts of North America and Europeans only first came into contact with turkeys roughly 500 years ago.  So how did turkeys (the bird) end up being named so similarly to Turkey (the country)?  As far as we can tell, the first European …

Antifederalist No. 51 — Do Checks and Balances Really Secure the Rights of the People?

This satire is from a pamphlet of “Aristocrotis,” The Government of Nature Delineated; Or An Exact Picture of the New Federal Constitution (Carlisle, PA, 1788). The present is an active period. Europe is in a ferment breaking their constitutions; America is in a similar state, making a constitution. For this valuable purpose a convention was …

FEDERALIST No. 51: The Structure of the Government Must Furnish the Proper Checks and Balances Between the Different Departments.

We are on the eve of a very important election.  Much has been said about the Constitution and what is Constitutional so let’s take a few weeks and look at the foundational letters written by Madison, Hamilton, and Jay arguing for the creation of the US Constitution.  The comment tab is open.  Please share your …

Well, I must admit that I am conflicted on this particular subject. A local PA Legislator is introducing a bill reinstituting cursive writing in our schools. YES, I am a great believer in maintaining core skills and I laugh every time I meet someone who cannot decipher cursive text. The question, however, is does this …

Antifederalist No. 50 — On Constitutional Conventions. (Part 2)

Antifederalists sought a second constitutional convention immediately after conclusion of the first. This essay by “An Old Whig,” is from either The Freeman’s Journal or The North-American Intelligencer, of November 28, 1787. It is true that the Continental Convention have directed their proposed constitution to be laid before a Convention of Delegates to be chosen …

FEDERALIST No. 50: Periodical Appeals to the People Considered

We are on the eve of a very important election.  Much has been said about the Constitution and what is Constitutional so let’s take a few weeks and look at the foundational letters written by Madison, Hamilton, and Jay arguing for the creation of the US Constitution.  The comment tab is open.  Please share your …

How to Survey Land with 18th Century Tools – The Tools

Land surveys consist of six basic tasks: Determinizing your position on Earth using celestial navigation methods Measuring distances with a Gunter’s Chain. Measuring changes in elevation with a Range Pole Measurement of directions and angles using a Compass. Drawing the map on a Plane Table, and Computing areas with basic plane geometry In this series …

Historical Tidbits

When reenacting or acting as a historical interpreter, its good to have a few historical dates and stories to share. This series will publish a few. November 19, 1794 — Treaty of Amity, Commerce, and Navigation, Between His Britannic Majesty and the United States of America (AKA the Jay Treaty) facilitated ten years of peaceful …

Antifederalist No. 49 — On Constitutional Conventions. (Part 1)

The following essay is in two parts: the first is by “Massachusettensis,” and is reprinted from The Massachusetts Gazette of January 29, 1788; the second part was written by “An Old Whig,” and is taken from The New-York Journal of November 27, 1787. That the new constitution cannot make a union of states, but only …

FEDERALIST No. 49. Method of Guarding Against the Encroachments of Any One Department of Government by Appealing to the People Through a Convention.

We are on the eve of a very important election.  Much has been said about the Constitution and what is Constitutional so let’s take a few weeks and look at the foundational letters written by Madison, Hamilton, and Jay arguing for the creation of the US Constitution.  The comment tab is open.  Please share your …

Antifederalist No. 48 — No Separation of Departments Results in No Responsibility

“Leonidas,” from London, obviously did not understand Article II Section I of the proposed new Constitution. But his works were welcomed in the London Times, and either The Freeman’s Journal, or The North-American Intelligencer on July 30, 1788. In the new constitution for the future government of the thirteen United States of America, the President …

FEDERALIST No. 48: These Departments Should Not Be So Far Separated as to Have No Constitutional Control Over Each Other.

We are on the eve of a very important election.  Much has been said about the Constitution and what is Constitutional so let’s take a few weeks and look at the foundational letters written by Madison, Hamilton, and Jay arguing for the creation of the US Constitution.  The comment tab is open.  Please share your …

Antifederalist No. 47 — “Balance” of Departments Not Achieved under New Constitution

This essay is made up of excerpts from “Centinel’s,” letters of October 5 and 24, 1787. Taken from The Independent Gazetteer. I am fearful that the principles of government inculcated in Mr. [John] Adams’ treatise [Defence of the Constitutions of Government of the United States of America], and enforced in the numerous essays and paragraphs …

FEDERALIST No. 47: The Particular Structure of the New Government and the Distribution of Power Among Its Different Parts.

We are on the eve of a very important election.  Much has been said about the Constitution and what is Constitutional so let’s take a few weeks and look at the foundational letters written by Madison, Hamilton, and Jay arguing for the creation of the US Constitution.  The comment tab is open.  Please share your …

Historical Tidbits

When reenacting or acting as a historical interpreter, its good to have a few historical dates and stories to share. This series will publish a few. November 16, 1776         Fort Washington taken by British After winning a major victory on Long Island the British began to move against Manhattan in mid-September. Unwilling to abandon New York …

Historical Tidbits

When reenacting or acting as a historical interpreter, its good to have a few historical dates and stories to share. This series will publish a few. November 16, 1777         Siege Fort Mifflin On September 22, Howe succeeded in achieving an uncontested crossing of the Schuylkill River and four days later occupied Philadelphia.  Having taken the city, …

Antifederalist No. 46 — Where Then Is the Restraint?

This essay by “An Old Whig” (see AFP #’s Nos. 18-20, 49, 50, and 70) appeared in the Maryland Gazette and Baltimore Advertiser on Nov. 2, 1788. Let us look to the first article of the proposed new constitution, which treats of the legislative powers of Congress; and to the eighth section, which pretends to …

FEDERALIST No. 46: The Influence of the State and Federal Governments Compared

We are on the eve of a very important election.  Much has been said about the Constitution and what is Constitutional so let’s take a few weeks and look at the foundational letters written by Madison, Hamilton, and Jay arguing for the creation of the US Constitution.  The comment tab is open.  Please share your …

Historical Tidbits

When reenacting or acting as a historical interpreter, its good to have a few historical dates and stories to share. This series will publish a few. November 15, 1777 – Articles of Confederation, the first US Constitution, is passed on this date in 1777. Two days later, the Continental Congress sent the Articles to the …

FEDERALIST No. 45: The Alleged Danger From the Powers of the Union to the State Governments.

We are on the eve of a very important election.  Much has been said about the Constitution and what is Constitutional so let’s take a few weeks and look at the foundational letters written by Madison, Hamilton, and Jay arguing for the creation of the US Constitution.  The comment tab is open.  Please share your …

FEDERALIST No. 44: Restrictions on the Authority of the States

We are on the eve of a very important election.  Much has been said about the Constitution and what is Constitutional so let’s take a few weeks and look at the foundational letters written by Madison, Hamilton, and Jay arguing for the creation of the US Constitution.  The comment tab is open.  Please share your …

FEDERALIST No. 43: The Powers Conferred by the Constitution Further Considered

We are on the eve of a very important election.  Much has been said about the Constitution and what is Constitutional so let’s take a few weeks and look at the foundational letters written by Madison, Hamilton, and Jay arguing for the creation of the US Constitution.  The comment tab is open.  Please share your …

How the British Perceived the American Revolution

The American revolution was a matter of great interest for the people in Britain. The British press weighed in on economics, military success and failures, the morality of the revolution, and more, through the press and private correspondence. As the British enjoyed one of the freest press systems in the world, not everyone felt obliged …

FEDERALIST No. 42: The Powers Conferred by the Constitution Further Considered

We are on the eve of a very important election.  Much has been said about the Constitution and what is Constitutional so let’s take a few weeks and look at the foundational letters written by Madison, Hamilton, and Jay arguing for the creation of the US Constitution.  The comment tab is open.  Please share your …

Antifederalist Nos. 41-43 — The Quantity of Power The Union Must Possess Is One Thing; The Mode of Exercising The Powers Given Is Quite a Different Consideration. (Part I)

Taken from “The Federal Farmer,” and written by Richard Henry Lee. . . . . A federal republic in itself supposes state or local governments to exist, as the body or props, on which the federal bead rests, and that it cannot remain a moment after they cease. In erecting the federal government, and always …

FEDERALIST No. 41: General View of the Powers Conferred by The Constitution

We are on the eve of a very important election.  Much has been said about the Constitution and what is Constitutional so let’s take a few weeks and look at the foundational letters written by Madison, Hamilton, and Jay arguing for the creation of the US Constitution.  The comment tab is open.  Please share your …

Is There Meaning Behind Each Fold of the American Flag?

Is There a Meaning Behind Each Fold of the American Flag?  Well, that depends…  For more than 200 years, the American flag has been the symbol of our nation’s unity, as well as a source of pride and inspiration for millions of citizens. Born on June 14, 1777, the Second Continental Congress determined that the …

Why Do We Fold the American Flag into a Triangle?

Actually, tradition calls for us to fold the flag into the shape of a tri-cornered hat, the kind worn by George Washington and other soldiers who served in the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War.  While the troops carried a variety of flags during that war, the tradition of folding the flag in the manner …

Antifederalist No. 40 — On the Motivations and Authority of the Founding Fathers

AntiFederalist #40 is a compilation of articles. It was a common saying among many sensible men in Great Britain and Ireland, in the time of the war, that they doubted whether the great men of America, who had taken an active part in favor of independence, were influenced by pure patriotism; that it was not …

FEDERALIST No. 40: On the Powers of the Convention to Form a Mixed Government Examined and Sustained.

We are on the eve of a very important election.  Much has been said about the Constitution and what is Constitutional so let’s take a few weeks and look at the foundational letters written by Madison, Hamilton, and Jay arguing for the creation of the US Constitution.  The comment tab is open.  Please share your …

Playing Court Whist

Whist is a classic English trick-taking card game which was widely played in the 18th and 19th centuries. Although the rules are simple, there is scope for scientific play. Derived from the popular 17th Century trick taking game known as “Ruff and Honours,” Whist literally takes its name from the old English word whist meaning …

Antifederalist No. 39 –Appearance and Reality — the Form Is Federal; the Effect Is National

The following excerpt is from the essays of “A Farmer.” It appeared in the Philadelphia Independent Gazetteer on April 15 and 22, 1788. . . . . The Freeman, in his second number, after mentioning in a very delusory manner diverse powers which remain with the states, says we shall find many other instances under …

FEDERALIST No. 39: The Conformity of the Plan to Republican Principles

We are on the eve of a very important election.  Much has been said about the Constitution and what is Constitutional so let’s take a few weeks and look at the foundational letters written by Madison, Hamilton, and Jay arguing for the creation of the US Constitution.  The comment tab is open.  Please share your …

Antifederalist No. 38 — Some Reactions to Federalist Arguments

This was an essay by “Brutus Junior” which appeared in The New-York Journal on November 8, 1787. Two articles by “A Countryman” were written by DeWitt Clinton, and appeared also in the New York Journal on January 10 and February 14, 1788. I have read with a degree of attention several publications which have lately …


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