The Cordwainer

The term “cordwainer” is an Anglicization of the French word cordonnier, which means shoemaker, introduced into the English language after the Norman invasion in 1066. The word was derived from the city of Cordoba in the south of Spain, a stronghold of the mighty Omeyyad Kalifs until its fall in the 12th century. Moorish Cordoba was celebrated in the early Middle Ages for silversmithing and the production of cordouan leather, called “cordwain” in England. Originally made from the skin of the Musoli goat, then found in Corsica, Sardinia, and elsewhere, this leather was tanned with alum after a method supposedly known only to the Moors. Crusaders brought home much plunder and loot, including the finest leather the English shoemakers had seen. Gradually cordouan, or cordovan leather became the material most in demand for the finest footwear in all of Europe.

The English term cordwainer first appears in 1100. Since this date the term cordouan, or cordovan leather, has been applied to several varieties of leather. Today cordovan leather is a vegetable tanned horse “shell,” and like the Medieval cordwain is used only for the highest quality shoes.

Since the Middle Ages the title of cordwainer has been selected by the shoemakers and used loosely. Generally, it refered to a certain class of boot and shoemakers. The first English guild who called themselves cordwainers was founded at Oxford in 1131. “Cordwainers” was also the choice of the London shoemakers, who organized a guild before 1160, and the Worshipful Company of Cordwainers has used this title since receiving its first Ordinances in 1272.

The benefits of utilizing dried animal hides were first recognized in prehistoric times when early man began to use early forms of leather for clothing and shelter against harsh conditions. The earliest recorded leather artefacts crafted by primitive societies date back to 1300 BC when man began to appreciate animal skins as much more than just a food by-product. Early civilizations across the world started to develop their own techniques to soften and preserve their animal hide by-products using methods traditionally passed down from father to son through many generations, such as smoke and animal grease. However, it is thought that the art of vegetable tanning as we know it today was originally discovered by ancient Hebrew peoples.

Wall paintings and artifacts in Egyptian tombs dating back to 5000 B.C. indicate that leather was used for sandals, clothes, gloves, buckets, bottles, shrouds for burying the dead and for military equipment. The Romans made extensive use of leather for footwear, clothes, and military equipment including shields, saddles and harnesses.  Due to its durability and comfort, leather has been used for seating throughout the history of transportation and furniture. It has always been the ideal material for making saddles and tack, as well as footwear. 

Text Box: Philadelphia, November 25 1779
	FORTY DOLLARS REWARD
DESERTED last Monday, the 22d. inst. from the Continental Shoe-Factory in the Barracks of this city, a certain JOHN WORKMAN, a British prisoner, and Serjeant in the 17th regiment of foot by trade a shoemaker, about forty five years of age, about five feet six or seven inches high, fair complexion, thin visage, light coloured hair, and pitted with the small-pox; had on when he went away, a brown surtout coat, whitecloth waistcoat and breeches, and a laced hat. Whoever will apprehend and secure the aforesaid deserter in any gaol on the Continent, or bring him to the subscriber, shall receive the above reward and all reasonable charges, paid by
	ALEXANDER RUTHERFORD 
Leather was a crucial necessity in cladding and equipping troops of the Continental Army, with shoes at the top of the list of needed items. This was largely due to there being no suitable alternative to properly made footwear, and that every soldier needed shoes even for duty at a fixed post, more so when on the march.

Leather shoes, belts, saddles, and cartridge boxes were in such short supply and of such military necessity that in 1777, Gen Washington formed an entire regiment under the Quartermaster General of artificers or craftsmen. Colonel Baldwin’s ten-company regiment was to contain 40 foreman and 520 privates. Each company was slated to have 24 house carpenters, 4 ship carpenters, 4 shop joiners, 10 smiths, 6 wheelwrights, 2 saddlers and harness makers, 1 shoemaker, and 1 tailor.   These men were so important to the success of the army that HUGE rewards were offered to recover deserters or escaped prisoners.

Text Box: An Act concerning Leather and for regulating the several Artificers concerned in working or making up the same
 
It enacted by the Governor and Council and House of Representatives in General Court assembled That no person shall sct up or carry on the trade or mystery of tanning leather in this state except he manifest his skill therein to the county court 1 wherein such person lives by the testimony of two or more witnesses and obtain a license from such court to set up and manage that trade on penalty that every person so offending shall forfeit the sum of thirty seven dollars one half to the county treasury and the other to him or them who shall prosecute the same to effect 
 
Be it further enacted That from and after the first day of September next each manufacturer of leather or of shoes shall have the exclusive right of stamping said articles by him or her manufactured with the initial letter of his or her christian name and his or her surname at large and the name of the town or place of his or her abode and such stamping shall be considered as a warranty that the article stamped is merchantable being made of good materials and well manufactured 
 
Be it further enacted That any person who shall fraudulently stamp or aid or abet in fraudulently stamping either of the articles aforesaid with the name or stamp of any other person on due conviction thereof shall be punished as guilty of a fraud either by fine not exceeding one hundred dollars or by imprisonment not exceeding six months or by both those punishments at the discretion of the court having cognizance thereof 4 Be it further enacted That the act entitled An Act concerning leather and for regulating the several artificers concerned in working or making up the same be and the same is hereby repealed .

 Thanks to Parliament and Lord Townsend, Leatherwork is not a free profession but is heavily regulated.  By the time of the Revolution, the American Colonies were desperately short of skilled leather workers.

Leather touches every aspect of everyone’s life in Colonial America. It is the Cordwainer and Cobbler who makes all this wealth of material comfort and industrial necessity a reality.

Published by Michael Carver

My goal is to bring history alive through interactive portrayal of ordinary American life in the late 18th Century (1750—1799) My persona are: Journeyman Brewer; Cordwainer (leather tradesman but not cobbler), Statesman and Orator; Chandler (candle and soap maker); Gentleman Scientist; and, Soldier in either the British Regular Army, the Centennial Army, or one of the various Militia. Let me help you experience history 1st hand!

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